• Increase parent knowledge of early childhood development

  • Improve parent practices

  • Provide early detection of developmental delays and health issues

  • Prevent child abuse and neglect

  • Increase children’s school readiness and success

Dear Friends,

2018 was a positive and eventful year for Parents as Teachers. We took important measures to strengthen our way of working to ensure continuous improvements as we strive to help parents raise healthy and successful children.

This year's annual report celebrates our many accomplishments over the last fiscal year. It also underscores our commitment to innovate and respond to new challenges and opportunities. Our vision is to grow our reach and impact, and assure the highest quality of services for our families with young children.

This involves not only being an outstanding partner and support to our affiliates, and state and country leaders, but it also requires that we keep ahead of trends and changes in the early childhood development home visiting field.

Here are a few key milestones:

  • A generous contribution from the Ballmer Group to focus on increased capacity to support affiliate quality and growth.

  • Launch of a learning management system—O.L.I.V.E.R. Where Collaboration Meets Learning

  •  An extended international conference in Phoenix, Arizona, that broke all attendance records.

  • Three new state offices added to support our growth and ensure program consistency.

  • One hundred and eighty-five thousand families and 223,500 children served through 1.8 million home visits.  Served families in 8,221 zip codes across the U.S.

  • The Maternal Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) program reauthorized for 5 years at $400 million/year.

  • An even stronger staff; adding more technical expertise to our operations. 


We have a long history of working with all families, including first-time parents, and parents with multiple children; moms; dads; grandparents and other caregivers involved in a child’s early development. With your ongoing support, we will reach even more families with quality, impactful services.

On behalf of our board and staff, we would like to thank you, our stakeholders, policymakers, and partners for your continued engagement and trust. Without you, our success today and tomorrow would not be possible.



Constance Gully

President and Chief Executive Officer

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Patricia Kempthorne

Board Chair


Patricia Kempthorne, Idaho (Chair)

Mark R. Ginsberg, Ph.D., Virginia (Vice-Chair)

Katrina F. Farmer, Missouri (Secretary)

Thomas P. Curran, Missouri (Treasurer)



Christopher “Kit” Bond, Missouri (Life Member)

Carolyn W. Losos, Missouri (Life Member)

Arthur L. Mallory, ED. D., Missouri (Life Member)

Edward F. Zigler, Connecticut (Life Member)

Thomas C. Melzer, Missouri (Immediate Past Chair)

David L. Morley, South Carolina (Life Member)

Janet Newton, Kansas

Governor Mike Parson, Missouri (Ex Officio)

Maxine Clark, Missouri

Steffanie Clothier, J.D., Colorado

Libby Doggett, Texas

Margie Vandeven (Ex Officio)

Mary Louise Hemmeter, Ph.D., Tennessee

Susan U. Lipstein, Missouri

Stacey Preis, Ph.D., Missouri (Representing Margie Vandeven of DESE – Ex Officio)

Bill Reichmuth, Missouri

Adele Robinson, Washington, D.C.

Kwesi Rollins, Washington, D.C.

Steven Rosenblum, Missouri

Melanie Rubin, Texas

Francis E. Rushton, M.D., Alabama

Aaliyah Samuel, Washington, D.C.

Karen Shanoski, Pennsylvania (State Leader Representative)

Francis Vigil, New Mexico

Renee Welch, Ph.D., Illinois

P.J. (Patricia) West, Iowa (State Leader Representative)

Parents as Teachers launches Women’s Partnership Network

Parents as Teachers National Center, Inc., established a Women’s Partnership Network, comprised of local influential women committed to advancing our mission. This distinguished group of women will be called upon to engage and support the work of Parents as Teachers, so that together, we can ensure all children will learn, grow and develop to realize their full potential. 

The inaugural Network was kicked-off with a Professional Women’s Engagement Café event. The Café provided an opportunity for professional women and young mothers, who receive Parents as Teachers services, to participate in life sharing dialogue designed to explore paths toward success and the challenges of motherhood. Parents as Teachers National Center plans to expand the Network to include professional men in efforts to deepen our community engagement in St. Louis and beyond.

Group connections provide opportunities to share information about parenting issues and child development. Parents are able to learn from and support each other, observe their children with other children, and practice parenting skills with the encouragement of group facilitators.

Goal$ & Assets program strengthens family engagement

Throughout the year, Parents as Teachers offers Goal$ and Assets: Family Conversations About Money, a six-week ongoing group series designed to support family well-being by increasing financial literacy. Each one-hour session builds on parents’ knowledge and offers opportunities for them to share experiences, ask questions, and reflect on their own strengths and assets. Our group connections help families develop friendships, form new support networks, share common experiences, and discover new ideas for addressing the day-to-day challenges of parenting.

Parent Educator delivers home visiting services on his Harley

Jeff Davis, 57, rides his Harley-Davidson motorcycle to work as a parent educator at REACHH, a community organization in West Virginia that offers the Parents as Teachers (PAT) early childhood home visiting program.

Clad in blue jeans, a t-shirt bearing the PAT logo, shoulder length hair and his Harley parked nearby, Davis is not your conventional social services worker making home visits.

"I certainly don't fit the mold of the typical parent educator," mused Davis. He said he has a non-judgmental approach to supporting families, and that's why "My families really trust me. They relate to me. I don't look all hoity-toity," he said with ironic pride.

Of the parents to which Davis administers PAT services, he said, “They know I’m not going to judge them or how their house looks when we’re reading princess books and making toilet-paper tube activities together (during home visits).” he said.

In the United States, PAT has about 5,148 certified parent educators trained in the PAT model. Only 2.4 percent are male. The REACHH Parents as Teachers program is funded by the West Virginia Maternal, Infant, Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) program, a federally-funded bi-partisan supported program that helps states offer evidence-based, voluntary home visiting services to families. The initiative aims to improve the development, health, and well-being of at-risk families with young children.

Davis services Summers County, a southern part of West Virginia, where he has lived for 30 years. It’s also where he and his now deceased wife raised two sons. For the past 25 years, Davis has worked as a school bus driver for a local Head Start agency. When he’s not driving the bus, he spends time doting on his seven grandchildren and helping out wherever he can at Head Start.

“I’ve done everything from assisting in the classrooms to taking out the trash,” he said matter-of-factly.

PAT's nationally-acclaimed child abuse prevention and school readiness strategy are backed by years of research that proves it works. It's designed to promote parenting behaviors that lead to healthy child development, among other outcomes.

The magic happens when trained facilitators, known as parent educators, visit with parents in their homes, create a trusting relationship, and help enhance their parenting skills. Davis recognizes that the imperiled families he serves are faced with mounting challenges, wrought with generational rural poverty, food insecurities, drug and alcohol abuse, and many factors that put children at risk of poor outcomes.

“Keeping the lights on, chemical dependency, foster care, I’ve seen it all,” he said. “But, if you’re broke, we’ll find a way to feed ya (sic).”

Part of a parent educator’s job is to help find concrete support for families in times of need. On one of his home visits, while talking with a mom, a toddler waddled over to the refrigerator and opened it, only to reveal empty shelves and a lone jug of milk.

“Mom was ashamed and did not want to tell me,” Davis conceded with a tinge of sadness. “We had a long talk about what she’s got going on, and how we (PAT) can help. We were able to get her some groceries within the hour.”

Davis came from humble beginnings, too. He dropped out of high school 16 and served in the Army for eight years, while traveling the world as a paratrooper. “I saw what real poverty looks like,” he said.

To assist other fathers that might find themselves in situations like Davis once did, REACHH started the ‘What You Do Matters’ group connections series. “Our families love it,” he said.

When scheduling home visits with families, Davis plans them for evenings when the dads are home from work. PAT’s home visiting model intervention program is designed to work with moms and dads as early as prenatally through kindergarten.

At the time of this interview, Davis was visiting with a family that has a toddler with developmental and vision issues. After detecting the issues, Davis connected the family to one of only two vision specialist in the state of West Virginia.

“Initially, I noticed he wasn’t reaching for things,” Davis said. “Now, (after intervention) he’s smiling and crawling.”

In that same family, there is an older sibling that, technically, Davis cannot provide services to because of restrictions imposed by the federal-funded MIECHV program.

“But I try to include her in some aspects of the personal visit,” he said. During his most recent visit, Davis said the little girl made him brownies. “We can’t accept food from families,” he said, and asked rhetorically, “but how could I possibly say no to her?”

Show Me Strong Families, the PARENTS AS TEACHERS national center Model Affiliate

The Show Me Strong Families PAT affiliate served 339 families with 381 children through 4,194 personal visits. Families were primarily located in the Normandy Schools Collaborative footprint, the City of St. Louis, or Pemiscot County. Ninety-six percent of the families had one or more high needs characteristics, with 43 percent having three or more.

Eighty-six percent of the families were African American and 41 percent were enrolled prenatally; the program had a 73 percent family retention rate. Through 34 group connections—several of them with fathers or teens only—and through additional screenings, a further 889 children were reached. Services were supported through funding from the Normandy Schools Collaborative, Office of Adolescent Health (ACF); Maternal Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting program (MIECHV), Missouri Youth Opportunities Tax Credits and many local private foundations.

FACE is a unique family program for American Indian families. It matches highly-trained, local, Native, professionals with families from pregnancy through their children’s first years of life. Starting as early as pregnancy, FACE parent educators help assess family needs and community resources available to them. They partner with parents to provide necessary tools to ensure the safety, emotional and physical well-being of their children. They also connect families to community programs and resources that enhance stability.

The program honors cultural practices, traditions, values, beliefs and incorporates diverse cultural strengths and language into every personal home visit. The program emphasizes strengthening intergenerational relationships and incorporating teachings of traditional narratives, beliefs, and tribal practices.

When children are age four, families in the program transition from Parents as Teachers home visiting to receive support via center-based care for their children to bolster family-school-community connections. Parents in the program also receive family literacy support to help families set goals and thrive in their own education and careers, long after the program ends.


Proof Points

  • FACE program services integrate language and culture in two settings: home and school.

  • Evaluations show that FACE programs are succeeding in addressing achievement gaps for American Indian children primarily located on rural reservations, better preparing them for school.

  • Respecting the personal heritage and culture of each individual family is essential to FACE.

  • Programs consult tribal cultural leaders, hire Native staff, engage elders, and other family members.

  • The program enhances the use of Native language, incorporating crafts, storytelling to connect families to traditional cultural events.

  • The program shifts from the traditional “fixing” of families to “empowering;” giving the family confidence and skills that will stay with them once their participation in the program has ended.

Improvement in later school achievement, reduction in absenteeism and suspension

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Sunnyside Parents as Teachers began in 1996 and serves more than 300 families per year. In 2017, they were recognized as a Blue Ribbon Affiliate through Parents as Teachers’ Quality Endorsement and Improvement Process. As a Blue Ribbon Affiliate, they have met all of the Parents as Teachers Essential Requirements and at least 75 percent of the Quality Standards.

Data for Parents as Teachers children was compared to non-Parents as Teachers children who were similar on key demographics such as free/reduced lunch, race/ethnicity, special education, and English Language Learner status. This quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted by LeCroy & Milligan Associates, Inc., a research and evaluation firm in Tucson, AZ. The study documents that for the 625-983 children in grades 3-12 that participated in the Sunnyside School District PAT program the following are indicated:

  • Students performed significantly better on Arizona’s English Language Arts assessment (Az MERIT ELA).

  • Students performed significantly better on phonics and reading comprehension tests (RAPS 360).

  • Students demonstrated a significantly larger gain in Arizona’s math assessment.

  • Students who are English learners had significantly higher average scores in Arizona reading and writing assessments.

  • Students had significantly lower average absence rates (for four school years).

  • Students showed fewer in-school suspension days (for one school year).

For the more than 300 participating parents, the following are indicated:

  • Parents demonstrated significantly improved parenting quality while in the program.

  • Parents showed significant improvements in Protective Factors which are: Family functioning; social support; and concrete support.

Reference: LeCroy & Milligan Associates, Inc. (2018). Parents as Teachers Home Visiting Intervention: A Path to Improved Outcomes, School Behavior, and Parenting Skills. Tucson, Arizona.

Reduction in child abuse and neglect

Connecticut Child Maltreatment Study conducted by researchers from Yale School of Medicine and University of Hartford. The research represents one of the largest studies in the U.S., conducted to investigate the impact of home visiting on child maltreatment, including nearly 8,000 families. Researchers found a 22 percent decreased likelihood of substantiated cases of child maltreatment as reported by Child Protective Services data when comparing two groups of children born to first-time mothers. Children whose mothers received home visiting were compared to children whose mothers were eligible for home visiting, but did not receive the services.

The families in the study were predominately single-parent households (90%), low education (46%), history of psychiatric care (25%), history of depression (40%), history of substance abuse (15%), and unstable housing (17%).

Reference: Chaiyachati, B., Gaither, J., Hughes, M., Foley-Schain, K., & Leventhal, J. (2018). Preventing child maltreatment: Examination of an established statewide home-visiting program. Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect, 49:476-484.

Prevents obesity and promotes health

In response to the obesity epidemic that has plagued countless Americans, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has granted Washington University $3.3 million to conduct a study. Parents as Teachers is partnering with Washington University on the study and has done on similar projects for two decades.

The NIH grant allows the university to scale the intervention to 28 Parents as Teachers home visiting sites across the United States to prevent weight gain and chronic disease among mothers 18–35 years of age, and evaluate dissemination and implementation.

Earlier this year, findings released from the effectiveness project called Healthy Eating and Active Living Taught at Home (HEALTH), a lifestyle modification intervention trial, were found to prevent weight gain, promote sustained weight loss and reduce waist circumference.

Reference: Haire-Joshu, D., Schwarz, C., Steger-May, K., Lapka, C., Schechtman, K., Brownson, R., & Tabak, R. (2018). A Randomized Trial of Weight Change in a National Home Visiting Program, American Journal of Preventative Medicine. 54(3):341–351.


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Fiscal Year 2017–2018 Financial Performance Highlights

The fiscal year 2018 was marked by significant progress. At Parents as Teachers, we believe that strong performance is about small improvements every day and we are fully committed to support revenue growth, internal performance improvements and a more cost-efficient organization.


Net Assets

Board Designated Quasi-Endowment Fund

General Unrestricted

Temporarily and Permanently Restricted Assets

Property and Equipment


Revenue and


Federal Grants

Contributions and Private Grants

Professional Development/Consulting

Program Support/Certifications/Other




Program Services

Management and General


Advocacy and Policy